(İngilizce Düz ifadelerin aktarımı)
1) Birisine ait bir ifadeyi aktarırken, direct speech (doğrudan anlatım) veya reported speech /indirect speech (dolaylı anlatım) kullanabiliriz.
Direct speech (doğrudan anlatım): Aktarılan cümlede hiçbir değişiklik yapmadan aktarırız ve tırnak (‘….’ / “ …”) içine alırız.
‘I’m going home,’ she said.
She said: ‘I’m going home.’
She said, ‘I’m going home.’
(‘Eve gidiyorum,’ dedi)
Reported speech (Indirect speech): Aktarılan cümlede şahıs zamirleri ve tense değiştirilir. Bu durumda tırnak içinde göstermeyiz.
She says she’s going home.
(Eve gittiğini söyler)
She said she was going home.
(Eve gittiğini söyledi)
2) Reported speech ifadelerinde, konuşmadaki kişi zamirlerini (I, me, myself, vb.) ve iyelik sıfatlarını (my, your vb.) kimden bahsediyorsak, ona göre değiştirmemiz gerekir.
Sonya said, ‘I have done my homework.’
Sonya said she had done her homework.
Sonya hakkında konuşurken she deriz, I demeyiz, Sonya’nın ödevinden bahsederken, her homework deriz, my homework demeyiz.
Aktarma fiili present veya future zamanda (he says, she will tell us vb.) olduğunda tense (zaman) değişmez:
‘I play football in the school team,’ Manu says.
Manu says he plays football in the school team.
3) Say and tell
Say, kime söylenildiği belirtmeden kullanılabilir. Tell, her zaman personal object alır; yani kime söylendiği belirtilir:
He said he was going home.
He told me he was going home.
Eğer say’den sonra kime söylenildiği belirtilmek istenirse, to kullanılmalıdır.
He said to me he was going home.
Explain, promise, agree, decide, claim, threaten, admit, complain, deny, suggest, understand, believe, confess, declare, point out, remark, think, warn fiilleri that-cümleciği alabilen say ve tell gibi kullanılabilen fiillerdendir:
‘I will be careful.’ à He promised that he would be careful.
‘I haven’t failed the exam.’ à He denied that he failed the exam.
‘Let’s go to the cinema.’ à She suggested that we should go to the cinema.
4) Eğer aktarma fiili past tense ise, aktarılan cümledeki zaman da past tense yapılır. ‘Present’ tense’ler ‘past’ tense’lere; ‘past’ tense’ler, ‘past perfect’ tense’lere değişir.
‘I live in the country.’ she told me.
She told me she lived in the country.
He said, ‘I’m going home now .’
He said he was going home then.
He said, ‘I have seen this film twice.’
He said he had seen the film twice.
‘I met your cousin at the zoo yesterday.’ he told me.
He told me he had met my cousin at the zoo the day before.
‘We were working at 5 o’clock .’ they said
They said they had been working at 5 o’clock
He said, ‘I had seen him twice before.’
He said he had seen him twice before.
‘I can swim very well.’ my father said.
My father said he could swim very well.
They told us, ‘we’ll go home.’
They told us they would go home.
‘It may rain heavily.’ the forecaster said.
The forecaster said it might rain heavily.
He said, ‘I must work hard.’
He said he must/had to work hard.
Tahmin anlamında must değişmez:
He said to the cat, ‘You must be hungry.’
He said to the cat it must be hungry.
‘I mustn’t go out at nights.’ she said.
She said she mustn’t go out at nights.
‘My father could be at home.’ he said.
He said that his father could be at home.
It might rain on Sunday.’ she said.
She said it might rain on Sunday.
‘Ankara is the capital of Turkey,’ she said.
She said Ankara is/was the capital of Turkey.
‘I have a Mercedes,’ he told me.
He told me he has/had a Mercedes.
Fakat söylenilen bir şeyin doğru olmadığını düşünürsek daima zamanı değiştiririz:
‘I have a Mercedes,’ said the man.
The man said he had a Mercedes, but he didn’t seem rich.
5) Zarflardaki değişiklikler
Here, now, today gibi konuşulan yeri ve zamanı tutan kelimeleri, eğer farklı yer veya zamanda bu kelimeleri aktarırsak, konuşmanın yapıldığı yeri veya zamanı kasdetmek için, değiştirmemiz gerekir. Muhtemel değişiklikler şöyledir.
DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED SPEECH
now then, at that time
today, tonight that day, that night
yesterday the day before / the previous day
two days ago two days before
last week the week before / the previous week
last Sunday previous Sunday
tomorrow the following day / the next day
next week the following week
next Sunday the following Sunday
‘I saw Tom here yesterday.’
Sally said she had seen Tom there the day before.
“We started three years ago.”
They said they started three years before.
“We have to study hard next week.”
They said they had to study hard the following week.
Zaman kelimeleriyle birlikte this à that olarak kullanılır.
“We are leaving this week.”
They said they they were leaving that week.
Nesne olarak this à that/ the olarak kullanılır.
“Read this book.”
He told me to read the book.
Cümlede zamir olarak kullanılan this ve that, it olarak kullanılır.
“This was good.”
He said it was good.
Bu değişiklikler duruma bağlı olarak farklı şekillerde olabilir. Mesela geçen haftaki “We’ll visit you next week.” konuşmasını, bu hafta “They said they would visit us this week.” şeklinde aktarmak mümkün.