Reported Statements (İngilizce Düz ifadelerin aktarımı)

REPORTED STATEMENTS

(İngilizce Düz ifadelerin aktarımı)

 

1) Birisine ait bir ifadeyi aktarırken, direct speech (doğrudan anlatım) veya reported speech /indirect speech (dolaylı anlatım) kullanabiliriz.

 

Direct speech (doğrudan anlatım): Aktarılan cümlede hiçbir değişiklik yapmadan aktarırız ve tırnak (‘….’ / “ …”) içine alırız.

 

‘I’m going home,’ she said.

She said: ‘I’m going home.’

She said, ‘I’m going home.’

(‘Eve gidiyorum,’ dedi)

 

Reported speech (Indirect speech): Aktarılan cümlede şahıs zamirleri ve tense değiştirilir. Bu durumda tırnak içinde göstermeyiz.

 

She says she’s going home.

(Eve gittiğini söyler)

 

She said she was going home.

(Eve gittiğini söyledi)

 

 

2) Reported speech ifadelerinde, konuşmadaki kişi zamirlerini (I, me, myself, vb.) ve iyelik sıfatlarını (my, your vb.)  kimden bahsediyorsak, ona göre değiştirmemiz gerekir.

 

Sonya said, ‘I have done my homework.’

Sonya said she had done her homework.

 

Sonya hakkında konuşurken she deriz, I demeyiz, Sonya’nın ödevinden bahsederken, her homework deriz, my homework demeyiz.

 

Aktarma fiili present  veya future zamanda (he says, she will tell us vb.)  olduğunda tense (zaman) değişmez:

 

‘I play football in the school team,’ Manu says.

Manu says he plays football in the school team.

 

3) Say and tell

 

Say, kime söylenildiği belirtmeden kullanılabilir. Tell, her zaman personal object alır; yani kime söylendiği belirtilir:

 

He said he was going home.

He told me he was going home.

 

Eğer say’den sonra kime söylenildiği belirtilmek istenirse, to kullanılmalıdır.

 

He said to me he was going home.

 

Explain, promise, agree, decide, claim, threaten, admit, complain, deny, suggest, understand, believe, confess, declare, point out, remark, think, warn fiilleri that-cümleciği alabilen say ve tell gibi kullanılabilen fiillerdendir:

 

‘I will be careful.’                              à He promised that he would be careful.

‘I haven’t failed the exam.’    à He denied that he failed the exam.

‘Let’s go to the cinema.’                    à She suggested that we should go to the cinema.

 

 

4) Eğer aktarma fiili past tense ise, aktarılan cümledeki zaman da past tense yapılır. ‘Present’ tense’ler ‘past’ tense’lere; ‘past’ tense’ler,  ‘past perfect’ tense’lere değişir.

 

 

  1. A) Tense change in reported speech:

 

  • Present simple à past simple

 

‘I live in the country.’ she told me.

She told me she lived in the country.

 

  • Present continuous à Past continuous

 

He said, ‘I’m going home now .’

He said he was going home then.

 

  • Present perfect tenses à past perfect tenses

 

He said, ‘I have seen this film twice.’

He said he had seen the film twice.

 

  • Past simple à past simple / past perfect simple

 

‘I met your cousin at the zoo yesterday.’ he told me.

He told me he had met my cousin at the zoo the day before.

 

  • Past continuous à past continuous / past perfect continuous

 

‘We were working at 5 o’clock .’ they said

They said they had been working at 5 o’clock

 

  • Past perfect tenses à Past perfect tenses ( aynı kalır)

 

He said, ‘I had seen him twice before.’

He said he had seen him twice before.

 

  1. B) Modal verbs in reported speech

 

  • Can, will, may yardımcı fiillerinin past şekilleri sırasıyla could, would, might dır:

 

‘I can swim very well.’  my father said.

My father said he could swim very well.

 

They told us, ‘we’ll go home.’

They told us they would go home.

 

‘It may rain heavily.’ the forecaster said.

The forecaster said it might rain heavily.

 

  • Must ifadesi ya değişmez veya have to ifadesinin past şekli had to şeklinde kullanılır.

 

He said, ‘I must work hard.’

He said he must/had to work hard.

 

Tahmin anlamında must değişmez:

 

He said to the cat, ‘You must be hungry.’

He said to the cat it must be hungry.

 

Mustn’t değişmez.

 

‘I mustn’t go out at nights.’ she said.

She said she mustn’t go out at nights.

 

  • Past modallar (could, would, should,might, ought, had better, used to ) değişmez:

 

‘My father could be at home.’ he said.

He said that his father could be at home.

 

It might rain on Sunday.’ she said.

She said it might rain on Sunday.

 

  1. C) Said, told gibi geçmiş zaman ile yapılan aktarmalarda, halen geçerli bir ifadeyi aktarırken, zamanı değiştirmeyebiliriz.

 

‘Ankara is the capital of Turkey,’ she said.

She said Ankara is/was the capital of Turkey.

 

‘I have a Mercedes,’ he told me.

He told me he has/had a Mercedes.

 

Fakat söylenilen bir şeyin doğru olmadığını düşünürsek daima zamanı değiştiririz:

 

‘I have a Mercedes,’ said the man.

The man said he had a Mercedes, but he didn’t seem rich.

 

 

5) Zarflardaki değişiklikler

 

 

Here, now, today gibi konuşulan yeri ve zamanı tutan kelimeleri, eğer farklı yer veya zamanda bu kelimeleri aktarırsak, konuşmanın yapıldığı yeri veya zamanı kasdetmek için, değiştirmemiz gerekir. Muhtemel değişiklikler şöyledir.

 

 

 

DIRECT SPEECH                REPORTED SPEECH

 

now                                        then, at that time

today, tonight                      that day, that night

 

yesterday                                the day before / the previous day

two days ago                          two days before

last week                                the week before / the previous week

last Sunday                            previous Sunday

 

tomorrow                               the following day / the next day

next week                               the following week

next Sunday                           the following Sunday

 

 

come                                       go

here                                        there

 

 

 

‘I saw Tom here yesterday.’

Sally said she had seen Tom there the day before.

 

“We started three years ago.”

They said they started three years before.

 

“We have to study hard next week.”

They said they had to study hard the following week.

 

This/that/these/those

 

Zaman kelimeleriyle birlikte this à that olarak kullanılır.

 

“We are leaving this week.”

They said they they were leaving that week.

 

Nesne olarak this à that/ the olarak kullanılır.

 

“Read this book.”

He told me to read the book.

 

Cümlede zamir olarak kullanılan this ve that, it olarak kullanılır.

 

This was good.”

He said it was good.

 

Bu değişiklikler duruma bağlı olarak farklı şekillerde olabilir. Mesela geçen haftaki “We’ll visit you next week.” konuşmasını, bu hafta “They said they would visit us this week.” şeklinde aktarmak mümkün.