Tense Uyumları

İngilizce Zamanların Sıralanışı – Sequences of tenses 

(Zaman uyumları)

İngilizce’de sequence of tenses (zaman uyumu), cümlede zamanların birlikte kullanıldığında present veya past zamanlar olarak belli bir uyum içinde olmasıdır.  Aşağıdaki tabloda belli başlı present ve past yardımcı fiiller gösterilmiştir.

 

PRESENT                                                     PAST

 

am/is/are                                                         was/were

do/ does (present simple)                           did (past simple)

have/ has                                                         had

will                                                                    would

can                                                                    could

 

 

Zaman uyumu noun clauses, adverbial clauses, if clauses, result clauses ve purpose clauses ifadelerinde gereklidir.

 

NOUN CLAUSES

 

Noun clause (isim cümlecikleri) ifadeleri yaparken ana cümle present tense ise noun clause ifadelerinde tense değişikliği olmaz. Bu yüzden ana cümle present tense ise noun clause present veya past olabilir.

 

Present + present

 

I think that he will sell his car.

We know he has a lot of money.

It has been stated that the oil prices are getting higher and higher.

I don’t know where he lives.

I think he has seen us.

 

Present + past

 

I think that Jill was ill yesterday.

I don’t know where they went last night.

 

 

Noun clause (isim cümlecikleri) ifadeleri yaparken ana cümle past tense ise noun clause ifadelerinde de past tenses kullanılmalıdır.

 

Past + past

 

I thought that he would sell his car.

We knew he had a lot of money.

It had been stated that the oil prices were getting higher and higher.

I didn’t know where he lived.

I thought he had seen us.

 

SEQUENCES OF TIME IN ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF TIME

(Zaman belirten zarf cümleciklerinde zaman uyumu)

 

 

  1. A) Yan cümlede present tenses kullanılması

 

When, as, before, as soon as vb. ile yapılan zaman bildiren yan cümle bağlaçlarında yan cümle present tense (present simple/present perfect tense) ise ana cümle present simple veya şimdi veya gelecekle ilgili yapılar yapılar (will, can, may, should, imperative vb.) gelir.

 

ADVERBIAL CLAUSE, MAIN CLAUSE

(Present simple, Present Simple)

 

 

Before I sleep, I usually pray.

As soon as the children arrive home, they take off their school uniforms.

When it rains, we usually go for a walk.

We drink tea after we have dinner.

 

ADVERBIAL CLAUSE, MAIN CLAUSE

(Present simple, will/can/imperative, etc.)

 

Once he makes up his mind, no one can stop him.

When my father comes, I will tell him everything.

As soon as I see the cat, you should catch him.

Before I leave the office, I will turn off the heater.

You will wait here until the bus arrives.

Heat the water until it boils.

 

Yan cümlede present perfect simple kullanmamız bir tamamlamayı vurgular, bu eylem yapıldıktan sonra diğerinin yapılacağını belirtir.

 

ADVERBIAL CLAUSE, MAIN CLAUSE

(Present perfect simple, present simple/will/can/imperative, etc.)

 

After I have read the book, I will return it to the library.

As soon as they have finished the meal, they will start to work.

You should lock the doors when everybody has left the hotel.

 

Yan cümlede while, as, when ile present continuous kullanılabilir.

 

ADVERBIAL CLAUSE, MAIN CLAUSE

(Present continuous, present simple)

 

While/As/When I am travelling, I read a book.

 

Might ve could, yapı olarak past yapıdadır. Fakat bu iki modal yardımcı fiil present/future possibility (şimdiki veya gelecek ihtimal) anlamında kullanılabilir. Bu anlamda kullanıldığı zaman, zaman uyumu kuralını bozmaz.

 

When he comes home, there might be no one inside.

(O eve geldiğinde içerde kimse olmayabilir)

 

  1. B) Yan cümlede past tenses kullanılması durumu

 

Zaman bildiren yan cümlelerle yapılan cümlelerde yan cümle past tense ise temel cümlecikte de past tenses ve past yapılar (would, could, used to vb.)  olmalıdır.

 

ADVERBIAL CLAUSE, MAIN CLAUSE

(Past Simple, Past Simple)

 

When I saw Jane, I said hello to her.

He started to read as soon as he received the message.

After the rain stopped, we went out to play in the street.

I turned off the computer before my father arrived home.

 

ADVERBIAL CLAUSE, MAIN CLAUSE

(Past Perfect Simple, Past Simple)

 

When she had cleaned the house, she went to bed.

After everybody had left the building, the police locked its door.

As soon as we had finished the work, we showed it to the boss.

 

ADVERBIAL CLAUSE, MAIN CLAUSE

(Past Continuous, Past Simple)

 

While/When/As John was playing football, he broke his leg.

While/When/As we were walking, it was raining gently.

 

ADVERBIAL CLAUSE, MAIN CLAUSE

(Past Simple, Past Perfect)

 

By the time the police arrived at the crime scene, the robbers had already escaped.

When the birds left the tree, the cat had caught one of them.

Before we started the journey, Helen had visited us.

 

 

 

Aşağıdaki cümleleri karşılaştırınız:

 

When I am in Paris, I often walk along the river seine.

When I was in Paris, I often walked along the river seine.

 

By the time the conference starts, I will have finished the project.

By the time the conference started, I had finished the report.

 

After Helen has finished the report, she will send it to the director.

After Helen had finished the report, she sent it to the director.

 

Aşağıdaki cümlelerde doğru yanlış kullanımları karşılaştırınız:

 

When I was in America, I played rugby. (doğru-yan cümle past, temel cümle past)

When I am in America, I will play rugby. (doğru-yan cümle present, temel cümle present)

When I was in America, I play rugby. (yanlış-yan cümle past, fakat temel cümle present)

When I am in America, I would play rugby. (yanlış-yan cümle present, fakat temel cümle past)

 

 

 

 

RESULT CLAUSES (SO /SUCH…THAT)

(Sonuç belirten yan cümleler)

 

So/such… that sonuç belirten ifadelerde zaman uyumu aranır. Cümlenin iki bölümü de ya “present+ present”, ya da “past + past” şeklindedir.

 

Present + present

 

He is so clever that he can solve complex problems.

Jill is such a helpful girl that her friends like her a lot.

 

Past + past

 

It was such a cold winter that we ran out of coal.

They walked so fast that we couldn’t catch them.

 

PURPOSE CLAUSES (SO THAT, IN CASE)

 

So that ve in case ile yapılan ifadeler zaman uyumu kuralına uyar. Cümlenin iki bölümü de ya “present+ present”, ya da “past + past” şeklindedir.

 

 

We are painting the house so that it will look better.

I recorded the wedding so that I could watch it later.

 

You should take a compass with you in case you get lost in the forest.

I took my umbrella in case it rained.

İngilizce tense (zaman) uyumlarını cümle cümle anlatmaya çalıştık. Umarız yararlı olmuşuzdur.