Passive Sentences in English (İngilizcede aktif pasif cümle yapısı)


PASSIVE SENTENCES IN ENGLISH

(İngilizcede aktif – pasif cümle yapısı)

 

1) Active vs Passive

 

Active (etken) cümlede özne, fiili yapandır:

 

Ali broke the window.

(Ali camı kırdı)

People grow tea in Rize.

(İnsanlar Rize’de çay yetiştirirler)

 

Passive (edilgen) cümlenin öznesi, eylemi yapan değildir; etkilenendir:

The window was broken by Ali.

(Pencere Ali tarafından kırıldı)

Tea is grown in Rize.

(Çay Rize’de yetiştirilir)

 

2) The passive fiiller be ve fiilin üçüncü şekliyle yapılır.

 

(to) be seen                 (görülmek)

(to) be written            (yazılmak)

(to) be painted            (boyanmak)

(to) be broken             (kırılmak)

(to) be invented          (icat edilmek)

 

Passive cümlenin yaparken fiil tüm tense’lerle her zaman 3. halde kullanılır. Cümlenin zamanını “be” fiili belirler. Bu yüzden passive cümle yaparken be fiilini tense’e uygun kullanırız ve fiilin 3. Halini getiririz.

 

3) Passive cümlenin yapısı şöyledir.

 

Özne  + be (uygun tense) + V3 + by agent (eylemi yapan) + yer ve zaman kelimeleri

Ice tea is served cold.

(Buzlu çay soğuk servis edilir)

İstanbul was taken by Fatih in 1453.

(İstanbul 1453’te Fatih tarafından alındı)

The letter is being written by the secretary at the moment.

(Mektup, şu anda  sekreter tarafından yazılıyor.)

The windows have been changed.

(Pencereler değiştirildi)

 

 

4) İngilizce’de ayrıca “get + V3” ile edilgen cümle yapılabilir. Yani be yerine get kullanılabilir. Bu yapı çoğu zaman beklenmeyen veya kaza ile olan şeyler hakkında konuşurken kullanılır.

Hakan was unlucky. His leg got broken in the training.

(Hakan şanssızdı. Antremanda bacağı kırıldı)

I got robbed three times last summer.

(Geçen yaz üç kere soyuldum)

 

5) Etken cümleyi edilgen yapma

 

Fatih took İstanbul in 1453.

(Fatih İstanbul’u 1453’te aldı. Cümlesini örnek alalım)

 

Etken cümleyi edilgen yapmak için,

 

  • Etken cümlenin nesnesi yani fiilden sonra gelen isim edilgen cümlenin başına yazılır.

 

İstanbul

 

  • Fiil tense göre be + V3 şeklinde özneden sonra getirilir.

 

İstanbul was taken

 

  • Etken cümlenin öznesi eylemi yapan “by” ile belirtilir.

 

İstanbul was taken by Fatih

 

  • En son varsa yer ve zaman kelimeleri yazılır.

 

İstanbul was taken by Fatih in 1453.

(İstanbul 1453’te Fatih tarafından alındı)

 

 FORMS OF PASSIVE TENSES

(İngilizce Edilgen zamanların yapıları)

Passive tenses (edilgen zamanlar), “be (am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been) + V3” ile yapılır:

 

  • Present simple passive : ( am / is / are + V3 )    

Active : Jane cleans the kitchen in the evenings.

Passive: The kitchen is cleaned by Jane in the evenings.

Active : People speak English and French in Canada.

Passive: English and French are spoken in Canada.

 

  • Past simple passive: ( was / were + V3 )

Active : Ali broke the window yesterday.

Passive: The window was broken by Ali yesterday.

Active : Someone stole Jill’s car last night.

Passive: Jill’s car was stolen last night.

 

  • Present continuous passive: (am / is / are + being + V3 )

 

Active : We are painting our house this week.

Passive: Our house is being painted this week.

 

Active : My father is fixing the taps in the bathroom now.

Passive: The taps are being fixed by my father in the bathroom now.

 

 

  • Past continuous passive: ( was / were + being + V3 )

 

Active : The police were stopping the cars for speeding.

Passive: The cars were being stopped by the police for speeding.

 

Active : Two men were robbing John when the police arrived.

Passive: John was being robbed by two men when the police arrived.

 

  • Present perfect simple passive: ( have / has + been + V3 )

 

Active : They have invited her to the wedding.

Passive: She has been invited to the wedding .

 

Active : The management has destroyed a lot of trees since 2000.

Passive: A lot of trees have been destroyed by the management since 2000.

 

  • Past perfect simple passive: ( had + been + V3 )

 

Active : Someone had eaten all the cake before the party.

Passive: All the cake had been eaten before the party.

 

Active : The police had questioned Jane by the time her lawyer arrived.

Passive: Jane had been questioned by the police by the time her lawyer arrived.

 

  • Future simple (will) passive: ( will + be + V3 )

 

Active : The teacher will talk to each student tomorrow.

Passive: Each student will be talked to by the teacher tomorrow

 

Active : They will build a new stadium in the city soon.

Passive: A new stadium will be built in the city soon.

 

  • Be going to future passive: ( am/is/are going to + be + V3 )

 

Active : The children are going to decorate the school tomorrow.

Passive: The school is going to be decorated by the children tomorrow.

 

Active : Jill is going to clean the windows this afternoon.

Passive: The windows are going to be cleaned by Jill this afternoon.

 

  • Future perfect simple passive: ( will have been + V3)

 

Active : The government will have passed the new law before the election.

Passive: The new law will have been passed by the government before the election.

 

  • Modals (can, could, may, might, should, must, will, would, etc) passive: ( modal + be + V3 )

Active : They can paint the house in two weeks.

Passive: The house can be painted in two weeks.

 

Active : You should keep dogs on a leash at all times.

Passive: Dogs should be kept on a leash at all times.

 

Active : This singer must do something new in his new albume.

Passive: Something new must be done by this singer in his new albume.

USING “BY + AGENT” IN PASSIVE SENTENCES

(Edilgen cümlelerde ‘by’ kullanma)

 

Edilgen cümlelerde işin kim/ne tarafından yapıldığını “by + agent” ile ifade ederiz. Fakat agent (yani eylemi yapan) someone, he, they, people vb. olduğunda vurgulamak gerekmedikçe passive cümlede belirtilmez.

Active : Fatih conquered Istanbul in 1453.

Passive: İstanbul was conquered by Fatih in 1453.

 

Active : The wind is making this sound.

Passive: This sound is being made by the wind.

 

Active : Someone stole my car last night.

Passive: My car was stolen (by someone) last night.

 

Active : People grow coffee in Brazil.

Passive: Coffee is grown (by people) in Brazil.

 

Passive cümlelerde eylemi yapan by ile belirtilir. With, kullanılan malzeme vb. için kullanılabilir. Karşılaştırınız.

 

This cake was made with eggs.

This cake was made by mother.

 

PASSIVE QUESTION SENTENCES

(Edilgen soru cümleleri)

Passive cümlelerin soru yapıları, yardımcı fiilden yararlanarak yapılır.  Yardımcı fiiller (is, are, will, etc.) cümlenin nesnesinden önce getirilir.

Are the cows milked every day? Yes, they are.

(İnekler her sabah sağılır mı? Evet sağılır)

Will the menu be announced by the chef tomorrow? Yes, it will.

(Menü şef tarafından yarın duyurulacak mı? Evet duyurulacak)

Soru kelimesiyle soru yaparken soru kelimesi başta yazılır.

Where are cars repaired?

(Arabalar nerede tamir edilir)

Aşağıdaki passive sorular fiilin nesnesini sorar.

 

Who has been invited?

(Kim davet edildi)

What was eaten by the guests yesterday?

(Dün konuklar tarafından ne yenildi)

 

Eylemi kimin veya neyin tarafından yapıldığını Who/What …… by?  kullanılır.

Who was America discovered  by?

(Amerika kim tarafından keşfedildi?)

What was the window broken by?

(Pencere ne tarafından kırıldı?)

 

PASSIVE WITH TWO OBJECTS

(İngilizce İki nesneli aktif pasif cümleleri)

 

Bazı fiiller iki nesne alabilir. Bunlar give, send, tell, buy, show gibi fiillerdir. Bu fiillerden sonraki nesnelerin yeri değiştirilerek iki farklı cümle yapılabilir.

 

1: Selin gave me the book.

2: Selin gave the book to me.

 

1: Sera bought her daughter a dress.

2: Sera bought a dress for her daughter.

 

Passive (Edilgen) yaparken fiilden sonra gelen isim yani ilk nesne passive cümlenin öznesi olarak yazılır. Yukarıdaki cümlelerin passive şekli aşağıdaki gibidir.

 

Passive 1: I was given the book by Selin.

Passive 2: The book was given to me by Selin.

 

Passive 1: Her daughter was bought a new dress by Sera.

Passive 2: A new dress was bought for her daughter by Sera.

 

Bu tür cümlelerin passive kullanımı genellikle şahısla başlanarak yapılır:

 

I was shown a secret photo by the police.

(Polis tarafından gizli bir fotoğraf gösterildim)

The teacher was sent a message.

(Öğretmen bir mesaj gönderildi)

Children mustn’t be given expensive presents.

(Çocuklara pahalı hediyeler verilmemeli)

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