Yer edatları İngilizce olarak aşağıda örneklerle anlatılmıştır. IN, ON, AT (Prepositions) Kullanımı
PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE
Prepositions are words that are normally placed before nouns or pronouns, but in formal English prepositions also can be placed at the end of the sentence. It is difficult to learn how to use prepositions correctly because the correct preposition can not be guessed and it has to be learned together with the expression or context. Prepositions may correspond to several different prepositions or they may have no equivalents as separate words in another language.
When we want to refer to place, we have a choice of prepositions depending on the meaning we wish lo express.
The preposition “in” is used for position that indicates inside large areas (in three dimensional space or any place which has boundaries or enclosed) or when something is surrounded on all sides.
a street (if we are given the name of the street, we use “in” the U.S. “on”.)
in the water, in the city centre, in a box, in Izmir, in a store, in Paris, in a room, in the house, in the sky, in college, in school, in the world, in hospital, in a car, in a picture, in a book, in a magazine, in a newspaper, in bed, in prison/jail, in a garden, in the park, in New York City*
There is a nightingale in the cage.
There are many clouds in the sky.
I am in Izmir.
She is in the hospital.
She is in hospital (it means the people are patients.)
The preposition “at” is used for position that indicates a point, proper names used for buildings itself, but of the activity which takes place there, names of group activities, *a street if the number is given.
at the door, at a concert, at 236 Street, at home, at the airport, at the library, at school, at a hotel, at the bus station at a conference, at the bus stop, at a football match, at university, at the end of street, at the party, at the traffic lights
Where is Howard ? He is at work (we always leave out “the” with work, same as; at school, at college, at university).
There is someone at the door.
There are two skyscrapers at the end of this street.
You aren’t at the station, Why ?
IN or AT
A small area such as a square, a room, a street, a school might be used with at. In this case we mean “at this point” rather than “inside”.
When a person works in a place or goes there regularly, we often say; He is at the factory / at the hospital / at work / etc.
IN means inside only.
AT could mean inside, or on the ground, or just outside.
Sally is in the swimming pool. (she is in the water.)
Sally is at the swimming pool. ( she is near / beside the swimming pool)
Sally is in the house (upstairs, etc.). (speaker thinks of the house as a place with walls, floor
and ceiling and he/she is near the house.)
Sally is at the house (in the city, etc.). ( speaker sees the house as if it is placed on an imaginary
map and he/she is far away from the house.)
IN or AT is possible for a building. But those have different meaning.
Where is Arnold ? He is at college. (He is there now.)
Is Arnold at work ? No, he’s still in college. (He is a student)
IN THE CORNER or AT/ON THE CORNER
In the corner indicates that something or someone is inside of somewhere (enclosed). At/on the corner indicates that something or someone is outside (as a point).
There is a man at the corner of the street
‘Is there a bus Stop near here ? Yes, there is a bus stop at the corner.
Excuse me, where is the concert hall ?
It is at the corner of Fifth Avenue. It is on the left.
The refrigerator is in the corner of the kitchen.
Where are my slippers ? They are in the corner, Daddy.
The lamp is in the corner of the room.
The preposition “on” is used for position on a surface or on a line. “On” can mean “attached to”.
‘There are pictures on the wall. Helen’s office is on the fourth floor. ‘There isn’t a key on the safe. ‘There are children on the deck. ‘There is a vase on the tea table.
on the table, on the bus, on the train, on the pavement, on the ship, on Melrose Street, on the fire place,
on the floor, on a horse, on a bike, on a plane, on the tree, on the book case, on a motor bike, on the sink, on the counter, on a plate, on a wall, on the ceiling, on Mount Ararat, on a journey, on the bus, on the train.
The preposition “under” is used to mean “lower than”.
under a table, under the bridge under the desk, under the bed under the box, under the car under an armchair, under the stairs under a tree, under the street lamp
There is a cat under the table.
There is an apple under the tree.
The rubber is under the desk.
There is a pullover under his coat.
The preposition “near” is used to mean ‘close to’, or “in the same area”.
Mike is near the glass.
Neil and Keith are near their mother.
There is a bike near the car.
Judie ‘s bed is near her desk.
My bag is near Henry’s school bag.
The preposition “behind” is used for a position to indicate that something is beyond or at the back of something / someone.
There are a lot of trees behind the house.
The tennis court is behind the school.
The plane is behind the officer.
IN FRONT OF
The preposition “in front of is used for a position to indicate that something is at the front of something /
The bus is in front of the school.
(The bus is on the same side of the road as the school)
There is a cat in front of the stove.
There are bottles in front of the door.
The horses are in front of the carriage.
ABOVE / BELOW
The preposition “above” is used to mean “higher than” where as “below” is used to mean “lower than”.
The eagle is above the flag.
There is a painting above the fire place.
The sparrow is below the flag.
The calendar is below the clock.
BELOW or UNDER
Below and under both mean “lower than”. Generally “under” indicates contact.
There is a picture under Jessica’s pillow.
Below indicates that there is a usually space between the two surfaces. .
Palmer’s flat is below my flat.
Over is used to indicate sense of covering (and sometimes touching). Over and above can be used interchangeably in the sense of vertically at a higher level.
There is a blanket over her.
There is a coat over her sweater.
There is cloud over the mountains.
There is an iron bridge over the river.
ABOVE or OVER
Above and over can both mean “higher than”. Generally above is used when one thing is not over another.
There is a cottage above the lake.
BETWEEN / AMONG
We say that somebody or something is between two or more people or things that are clearly seen separated. We have a definite number in mind. We use among when somebody or something is in a group, in a crowd or in a group of livings which we do not see separately. In other words we have no definite number in mind.
Gloria is between Ursula and Sonia.
There is a book case between two columns.
The pencil case is among the books.
There is a black sheep among the white sheep.
ACROSS / THROUGH
When we want to describe a movement, we can use either “across” or “through”. We use “across” for a surface and “through” for something that we are in the middle of.
The children run across the stadium.
We go on driving through the tunnel.
A group of people walk through the forest.
There’s a small bridge across the river.
ACROSS / ALONG
We use both “across” and “along” in description of a movement. But there’s a small difference between them. We use “across” when we mean going from one side to the other. And we use “along” when we mean following a line.
The old man walks carefully across the street.
The child runs across the road.
I walk along the street in the afternoon.
I always walk slowly along the river.
NEXT TO / NEAR
We use “next to” when the things or people are in a row (in theatre, cinema). We use “near” in the meaning of “close to” or “in the same area”.
The woman next to me cried from the beginning until the end of the film.
There s a library next to the police station.
We decided to camp at a place near the river.
The children always play in the park near their house.
TO / TOWARDS
When we describe travelling, we can use either “to” or “towards”. We use “to” when the movement is finished and “towards” when the movement is not finished.
The Brown family moved to Antalya.
A policeman walked towards us.
You walk through the post office and turn left before you get there.
I will go to the post office and send a letter.