1- We use the PPCT to talk about an action or situation which started in the past and continues with now. The action may or may not be completed.
It has been snowing Now
It has been raining all day.
Sally has been reading a book since 3 o’clock.
2- We can use the PPCT for repeated actions which started in the past and continue up to the present time. Verbs which are used in this way are: hit, kick, knock, cough, jump,
Ayla has been coughing all night.
I have been writing letters since this morning.
-But when we say number of sth, the present perfect tense is used.
I have written these letters since this morning.
3- It is used for an action which began in the past and just finished now (before the time of speaking).
I’m sorry. I am late. Have you been waiting long?
4- We can also use the PPCT for an action which finished a very short time ago. But its results or effects is still on progress.
You are very hot. Have you been running?
Marry has been swimming. She still wet.
NOTE: We use the PPCT to show the progress of an action. But we use the PPT to show the finishing of an action.
Ann’s clothes are covered in paint. She has been painting the ceiling.
The ceiling was white. Now it is blue she has painted the ceiling.
5- We use the PPCT to talk about an action which is temporary or about to change.
A:What do you do?
B:I have been studying at the university. Next year I’ll graduate and work here as English teacher.
6- We don’t usually use the PPCT with non-action verbs.I have known Mary since 1987.
-But we can use “want & wish” in this tense although we can’t use them with other continuous tenses.
What a beautiful present. I have been wanting a computer like this for a long time.
-We can use non-action verbs different meaning.
The director has been seeing the applicant this since morning.
7- We use the PPCT to express anger, irritation, annoyance, explanation or criticism.
She has been using my make-up.
8- We can also use the PPT with the verbs “work, want, live, snow, learn, sit, study, lie, teach, rain, stay” to talk about actions started in the past and continue up to the present. But we usually prefer the PPCT.
She has lived in Denizli for three years. She has been living in Denizli for three years.